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論死刑存廢 冤案折射司法體制缺陷
2013/12/24
死刑存廢 冤案折射司法體制缺陷


新唐人/2013.12.24 

備受法律界及社會關注的「樂平死刑冤案」,12月20號在江蘇省蘇州市召開研討會。大陸各地四十多位律師、專家、學者參加了這次會議,會上以「江西樂平命案」等案件為例,就死刑的存廢及「刑訊逼供」等問題展開討論。

山東律師張維玉是「樂平死刑冤案」的代理律師之一。他表示,大部分參加研討會的律師都認為大陸應該「廢除死刑」。

山東律師張維玉:「全世界都是這麼一個趨勢,要廢除死刑。再一個就是,本身這個死刑,對於減少犯罪率,沒有多大作用。再一個,對於當前中國這種現實情況來說,死刑不僅不能減少犯罪率,反倒成為一個器官移植的這樣一種渠道。大家非常反對。」

在衆多主張「廢除死刑」的理由當中,「誤判」是一個重要因素。支持「廢除死刑」的律師認為,在當前大陸司法不公,死刑可能被公權力濫用的環境下,只有廢除,才能避免冤案。

張維玉:「現在,當權的一些人,或者說是有權勢地位的這麼一些人,他們可能利用這種死刑,可以消滅、可以作為滅口的一種手段,讓這些人都沒有再開口的一個機會。」

據資料顯示,中國每年判決死刑立即執行的案件近萬起,差不多是世界其他國家死刑案件總和的5倍,其中很多都是冤、假、錯案,而「刑訊逼供」又是造成冤案最常見的手段。

張維玉:「自從接觸這樣的一些案子之後啊,有很多人跟我聯繫,應該是比較多的。就是說,通過刑訊逼供、通過口供判處一個人死刑,或者判處死緩的案子應該還是比較多的。」

以發生在2000年5月4號的「江西樂平死刑冤案」為例,樂平中店村方春平等四位村民在酷刑逼供下,不得不招供是一起搶劫、強姦、碎屍案的兇手。四人一審判處死刑,後改為死緩。十多年來,這四位所謂的「罪犯」和家屬,為昭雪冤情不斷抗爭,但都無濟於事。

直到2011年11月,另一名嫌疑犯方林崽被捕,承認自己是案件的兇手,才給方春平等人重獲自由帶來了一線希望。但在當前中國大陸司法現狀下,案件的重審、改判依然是困難重重。

張維玉:「他們一直堅持他們是非常冤枉的。方林崽他自己承認了他是殺人兇手之後,他們的情緒更加激動,又一次的絕食,實際上在之前他們也絕食過。他們的家裏人呢,在這十幾年期間也多次上訪。其中我的當事人方春平他的父親曾經在北京就因為上訪被判過刑,他的妻子、他的母親也因為上訪被拘留過。」

此外,據統計,目前大陸公開報導被錯判冤死的無辜公民多達十數人,其中包括聶樹斌、滕興善、呼格吉勒圖、曹海鑫、佘祥林、杜培武等人。另外還有很多民間爭議極大的案子,如夏俊峰案、上海楊佳案等。

而所謂「嚴打」期間,被錯判死刑的冤案,更是數不勝數。據資料顯示,1983年僅「嚴打」一年,就有24000人被法院判處死刑。

支持死刑的觀點認為,廢除死刑有違民意,因為罪大惡極者判處死刑可以緩解民憤,尤其民衆最不能忍受的,是取消對貪污受賄者處以死刑。

但反對者指出,中國自建政以來,因貪污受賄被處死的官員寥寥無幾,甚至一些在民間要求判處死刑呼聲很高的貪官,也只是被判處死緩。而且近年來引起極大民憤的「強姦幼女案」,施暴者們得到的懲罰更是輕的令人難以置信,令受害者悲憤不已。

中間人士則指出,從兩方面看,如果不廢除死刑,在中國被判死刑的,多為貧窮、弱勢群體或異議人士。但如果廢除死刑,中國特色的司法腐敗,會使得罪犯無期變有期,從有期不斷減刑,最後逃離法律制裁。因此,問題的關鍵並不在於是否廢除死刑,而在於國家的制度與司法是否公正。

採訪編輯/張天宇 後製/鍾元


Lawyers and experts call for abolishment of the death penalty

A forum focusing on the Leping murder case and its victims
was held on Dec. 20 in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province,
with over 40 lawyers, experts and scholars in attendance.

Participants used the Leping case and other similar incidents
to discuss the abolishment of torture and the death penalty.

Shandong attorney Zhang Weiyu was an attorney
for the defendants in the Leping murder case.
He says the majority of participants in the recent forum agree
that the death penalty should be abolished.

Zhang Weiyu, Shandong lawyer:
"Abolishment of the death penalty is a global trend.
Firstly, the death penalty itself does not reduce crime rates.
Secondly, the death penalty in China today has become
a source for organ transplantation. Everyone opposes it."

Among the many reasons for abolishing the death penalty is
the risk of error in judgment.
Lawyers supporting an end to the penalty say China's current
justice system under the Communist regime is likely to
abuse the system and conduct miscarriages of justice.

Only terminating the death penalty can avoid injustice.

Zhang Weiyu: "Those holding power in the current regime
often abuse the death penalty, and use it as a means
to silence people they don't want to speak up."

Statistics show that every year China conducts
tens of thousands of executions, roughly five times
the total executions done in the rest of the world combined.

Many of them have been filed as unjust, false or wrong cases,
and torture is the most common cause of the injustice.

Zhang Weiyu: "Ever since I have dealt with these kinds of
cases, many people have contacted me.
Many death sentences or death sentences with reprieve
are given based on confessions obtained via torture."

The Jiangxi Leping murder case happened on May 4, 2000.

Four villagers in Leping were tortured to confess to
allegations of involvement in robbery, rape and murder.
The four of them received death sentences with reprieve.

The defendants and their families have continued making
every effort for more than 10 years to get redress for the
injustice, but to no avail.

It wasn't until November 2011 that four victims saw hope
for freedom, when suspect Fang Linzai was arrested and
admitted that he was the real murderer in the Leping case.

However, many difficulties still exist for a retrial under the
current justice system in China.

Zhang Weiyu: "They have been insisting on their innocence.
Fang Linzai's admittance to being the murderer
boosted their morale. They went on hunger strike again.
They have had the hunger strike before.
In the past 10 years, their families
have petitioned for their release many times.
It's just like with my client, Fang Chunping, who's father
was sentenced because he went to Beijing to petition.
His wife and mother have also been jailed for petitioning."

There have been more than a dozen publicly reported
unjust cases involving innocent citizens being
wrongfully convicted.

During the campaign to “crack down on crime”, the number
of mistrials given the death penalty has been countless.
The campaign to “crack down on crime” began in 1983, and
within a year, led to 24,000 people being sentenced to death.

Those who support the death penalty say that abolition
of the death penalty would oppose public opinion,
as the death penalty eases public anger to the criminals.

The people especially oppose the abolition of
the death penalty for corrupt officials.

They also say that since the ruling of the Communist regime,
cases of corrupt officials getting death sentences have been few.
Sometimes when the public highly demands a corrupt official
get the death penalty, the most they'd get
is a death sentence with reprieve.

In particular, the official who raped a toddler received
an unbelievably light sentence, causing the victim's family
tremendous resentment and anger.

Those sitting on the fence on the issue say that one hand,
if the death penalty continues, it's mostly the disadvantaged,
the poor, and dissidents who become the victims.

But on the other hand, if the death penalty is abolished, the
corrupt judicial system under the current regime will reduce
life-imprisonment to term imprisonment, reduce the years of
sentences to a minimum, and finally escape legal sanction.
Thus, the death penalty is not the issue, the justice of
the government and the judicial system is the key.
 
關鍵字:冤案成因  刑求  死刑